I think most games use some kind of property system as a way to expose, edit and serialize parameters for game objects. There are of course very many ways to implement it, but here is how I'm currently doing.
Each game object that is big enough to carry properties has a PropertyBag instance. The types of properties should ideally be setup per class, not per object, but that requires extra code and I always strive for keeping the amount of code to a minimum. Hence, the construction of a property bag is done in the object constructor and might look like this:
mProperties.add("color", "1 0 1");
Yes, those are strings. Most game developers don't like them. I do, and I will explain why later. Now, setting up properties for every object this way is both time consuming and memory intensive, and there will most likely be lots of instances with exactly the same property configuration. Therefore, property configurations are cached on a per class class basis:
mProperties.add("color", "1 0 1");
So the property definitions are not actually stored in each object, but merely a pointer to a definition which is created by the first object using it. This of course reduces memory overhead by magnitudes. The system also handles inheritance, so a derived class can add more properties to an existing definition, but the amount of data per object to store the whole definition is only a single pointer. In a derived class, the parent constructor will run first, adding properties and then each derived class adding their own in order. The init method detects this by being called several times with different strings.
Now that the property bag is configured I can start reading and writing properties using various get/set methods:
float density = mProperties.getFloat("mass");
This will convert the string "1.0" to a float and return it. If the string isn't numerical, it will still return a valid number (0.0), but issue a warning. I also have some operator overloading to allow immediate conversion from most basic types:
float density = mProperties["mass"];
The system accepts any type conversion on the fly:
mProperties["mass"] = 2.0f;
string str = mProperties["mass"]; // str is now "2.0"
This is all very flexible, but performance is somewhat questionable. I typically cache any property that is used every frame in a member variable. Therefore each game object has a loadProperties() method that gets called whenever something changes. This gives the object a chance to cache a local copy of each performance critical property:
mDensity = mProperties["density"];
So how much memory is being used? As long as an object doesn't override the default value, nothing is stored per object, hence adding more properties to a class doesn't make objects bigger unless you cache a local copy per instance for performance reasons. The system also supports template values, so in addition to default values, each object can also be assigned a certain template (another pointer). Templates are defined in a simple XML file with key/value combinations that have no knowledge whatsoever about the object type. The same template can even be assigned to property bags of totally different types if wanted.
For instance an object that want to use a more slippery form of rubber can use the rubber template, but override the friction property explicitly and only the new friction value will be stored in the object.
Using strings have two obvious problems: a) It is slow and b) Loose bindings are sensitive to typos. The first issue is seriously overrated IMO. Comparing strings is not as slow as most people claim, especially when using a custom string object with built-in storage. In most cases you only need to compare the first letter of two strings to detect a mismatch. The second issue is more worrying, but the system can easily issue warnings when asking for properties that do not exist. Then at least you will be notified of typos at runtime.
There are several benefits that I think clearly outweigh the negatives. The ability to serialize an object into XML/JSON/YAML/etc using solely the property bag is one of them (the entire level loading/saving code is 50 lines of code, and there is no additional serialization code per class), automatic property editing from a level editor is another. The editor doesn't need to know anything about what is being edited, it just presents all the properties of an object and their values as strings (another 50 lines of code to edit any property of any object in the game). Keeping the property names and their values as strings also allow for trivial scripting integration. We use Lua and have one very useful function to query any property: mgGet("name.property") where name is the object name and property is the property name. The result is always a string, which can then be converted to whatever type seems fit (not even 50 lines of code to access any property of any object in whole game from script).
One improvement I would like to make is how the property values are stored internally. Currently I store them as strings regardless of what they represent, but a more efficient way would of course be to store them in binary form, based on what they represent. The format can be chosen either during initialization or at every set operation.
I currently consider the property bag a blueprint of the object rather than a direct mapping of the object internal state. Hence, if an objects internal state is updated at runtime I don't update the properties at that point. That way I can easily reset an entire level to the state it was at load time. There are benefits of keeping a direct mapping too, so I don't really have a strong opinion as long as it's consistent. A direct mapping certainly puts the property system under more stress. Anyone who tried?